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Respon Tanaman Tumpangsari (Kelapa Sawit+Nenas) Terhadap Ameliorasi
dan Pemupukan di Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi (The Responses of Intercropping Plant
(Palm + Pineapple)
to Amelioration and Fertilization on Degraded Peatlands)

Masganti, I G.M. Subiksa, Nurhayati, Winda Syafitri

Abstrak. Produktivitas kelapa sawit yang ditanam di lahan gambut masih tergolong rendah antaranya karena tingkat kesuburan tanah yang rendah, sehingga perlu dilakukan ameliorasi dan pemupukan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Lubuk Ogong, Kecamatan Langgam Kabupaten Pelalawan, Riau. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh jenis amelioran terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tumpangsari kelapa sawit + nenas di lahan gambut terdegradasi. Perlakuan yang diuji meliputi (a) pemupukan menurut cara petani, (b) ameliorasi dengan pupuk gambut, (c) ameliorasi dengan tandan kosong sawit, dan (d) ameliorasi dengan pupuk kandang. Perlakuan ditata dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap pertumbuhan kelapa sawit meliputi pertambahan jumlah pelepah daun dan panjang daun, pertumbuhan nenas meliputi pertambahan daun dan panjang daun yang diukur setiap 2 (dua) minggu, dan produksi kelapa sawit dan nenas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ameliorasi berpengaruh terhadap pertambahan jumlah pelepah daun dan lebar daun kelapa sawit, pertambahan jumlah daun dan lebar daun nenas, dan produksi nenas, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap produksi sawit yang dibudidayakan  di lahan gambut terdegradasi. Produksi kelapa sawit tertinggi dihasilkan oleh perlakuan amelioran Tankos (20.057 kg/ha/tahun), sedang produksi nenas tertinggi dihasilkan oleh perlakuan amelioran Pugam (11 buah/ha).

Kata kunci : Tumpangsari, sawit + nenas, ameliorasi, pemupukan, lahan gambut

Abstract. The productivity of palm oil on peatlands are relatively low due to low soil fertility, so it needs to be done amelioration and fertilization. The experiment was conducted in Lubuk Ogong village, Langgam Subdistric, Pelalawan District, Riau Province. The treatments included (a) fertilization according to the farmers, (b) amelioration by Pugam, (c) amelioration by empty fruit bunches of oil palm, and (d) amelioration by manure. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The observations were made on the growth of oil palm comprise number of  leaves  midrib and canopy width, and growth of pineapple i.e : number of  leaves,and leaf length which were measured every  two weeks, and production of oil palm and pineapple. The results showed that amelioration affect  the increasing of leaves midrib and leaf canopy width of oil palm, the increase of  the leaves number and leaf length of  pineapple, and pineapple production, but there was no effect on the production  of oil palms which are cultivated on the degraded peatlands. The highest production of oil palm were produced by amelioration treatment with empty fruit bunches of oil palm (20.057 kg /ha/year), while the highest pineapple production were produced by amelioration treatment with Pugam (11 units/ha).

Keywords: Intercropping, oil palm + pineapple, amelioration, fertilization, peatland

(Diterbitkan pada Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pengelolaan Berkelanjutan Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi untuk Mitigasi Emisi GRK dan Peningkatan Nilai Ekonomi. Jakarta, 18-19 Agustus 2014. Hal. 117-132. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. 2014. Penyunting: A. Wihardjaka et al.).

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