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Respon Tanaman karena Pengaruh Ameliorasi Tanah di Lahan Gambut:
Sintesis dari Empat Lokasi Penelitian
(Crops Responses to Amelioration on Peat Soil : Synthesis of Four ICCTF Research Sites)

I G.M. Subiksa, I G.P. Wigena, Diah Setyorini, Salwati, Nurhayati, Tuti Sugiarti, Anang Firmansyah

Abstrak. Penelitian respon tanaman karena pengaruh ameliorasi tanah di lahan gambut telah dilakukan tahun 2013-2014 di empat lokasi yaitu Jambi, Riau, Kalteng dan Kalbar. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melakukan verifikasi teknologi ameliorasi untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman perkebunan dan jagung, serta melihat pengaruhnya terhadap dinamika sifat kimia tanah. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 4 perlakuan amelioran yang bervariasi antara satu lokasi dengan lokasi lainnya. Amelioran yang digunakan adalah Pugam, Pukan, Tankos, Tanah mineral dan kontrol. Tanaman indikator adalah kelapa sawit di Jambi dan Riau, karet di Kalteng dan jagung di Kalbar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh perlakuan amelioran bervariasi antar lokasi. Di Jambi amelioran berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan maupun produksi TBS kelapa sawit. Di antara amelioran, Pukan lebih unggul dibandingkan amelioran lainnya. Fluktuasi temporal produksi TBS berkorelasi dengan kedalaman muka air tanah. Di Riau amelioran berpengaruh nyata terhadap produksi TBS kelapa sawit dan Pugam lebih unggul dibandingkan dengan amelioran lainnya. Di Kalteng, amelioran tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan batang dan produksi getah karet, namun ada kecendrungan penambahan lilit batang lebih tinggi dengan amelioran. Di Kalbar, amelioran tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan maupun produksi jagung, namun ada kecendeungan Pugam memberikan hasil jagung lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol maupun amelioran lainnya. Sementara itu perlakuan cara petani yang memberikan input lebih banyak jenis amelioran dan dosis, menghasilkan biji jagung yang lebih besar. Database sifat kimia tanah pada masing petak perlakuan menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kemasaman tanah di empat lokasi tergolong ekstrim masam. Status hara P dan K di Jambi dan Riau cukup tinggi tetapi di Kalteng dan Kalbar rendah.

Kaca kunci: Amelioran, pugam, pukan, tankos, kelapa sawit, karet, jagung, sifat kimia tanah

Abstract. Research on crops response due to ameliorant application on peatland has been carried out in 2013 - 2014 at 4 locations namely Jambi, Riau, Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. The objectives are to verify the amelioration technologies to increase the growth and production of oil palm, rubber and corn and to study their effect on the dynamics of soil chemical properties. Research using randomized complete block design with 4 kinds of ameliorant treatments which varies between one location to another. Ameliorant studied were Pugam, Manure, EFB compost and mineral soil and control. Crops indicator were oil palm at Jambi and Riau, rubber at Central Kalimantan and corn at West Kalimantan. The results revailed that the effects of ameliorant treatment vary between locations. In Jambi ameliorant significantly affect the growth and production of oil palm FFB. Among ameliorants, Manure is superior to the other. The temporal FFB production fluctuation has correlation with the depth of water table. In Riau ameliorant significant effect on the production of oil palm FFB and Pugam superior compared to other ameliorants. In Central Kalimantan, ameliorant no significantly effect on stem growth and latex production, but there is a tendency that ameliorant affect the higher latex. In West Kalimantan, ameliorant did not significantly affect the growth and production of corn, but there is a tendency that Pugam gave a higher corn yield than the control or other ameliorant treatments. Meanwhile the conventional farmer practices that provide more input, both in terms of types and doses, has greater size of corn grain. The database of soil chemical properties in each treatment plot shows that the level of soil acidity in 4 locations classified as extremely acid. P and K nutrient status in Jambi and Riau quite high but low in Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. The higher nutrient status of two first location were due to fertilizer residue from the previous application.

Keyword: Ameliorant, pugam, pukan, tankos, palm oil, rubber, corn, soil chemical properties

(Diterbitkan pada Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pengelolaan Berkelanjutan Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi untuk Mitigasi Emisi GRK dan Peningkatan Nilai Ekonomi. Jakarta, 18-19 Agustus 2014. Hal. 25-44. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. 2014. Penyunting: A. Wihardjaka et al.).

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