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Optimalisasi Perencanaan Penggunaan Lahan Menggunakan SWAT:
Suatu Studi di DAS Cijalupang, Bandung, Jawa Barat

1Erna Suryani, 2Muhammad Ardiansyah, 2Surya Darma Tarigan, dan 3Fahmuddin Agus
1Peneliti Badan Litbang Pertanian pada Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian,
Jl. Tentara Pelajar 12, Cimanggu Bogor
2Staf Pengajar Jurusan Tanah, Fakultas Pertanian IPB, Jl. Raya Darmaga Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor
3Peneliti Badan Litbang Pertanian pada Balai Penelitian Tanah, Jl. Tentara Pelajar 12,Cimanggu Bogor

Abstract. The land use of an area will influence the hydrological processes of a watershed. Changing of the proportion and the type of land cover will influence its hydrological systems. This research, conducted in Cijalupang Watershed – Bandung, West Java in 2004 aimed to analyze the land use change occurred in Cijalupang Watershed and its influence on the hydrological characteristic, and designs the land use which is based on land quality and its hydrological aspects. The optimization process supported by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) 2000 and Geographic Information Systems tools. The analysis showed that SWAT is capable to predict properly the total annual water yield of the watershed. The changes in land use by reducing the total area of mixed garden (7. 3%) and forest (2.3%) followed by the increasing upland area (5.7%) and settlement area (5.1%) within a period from 1990 – 2002, tended to increase the total annual water yield even it was not significant (0.90%). The significant changes occurred in the increase of total surface runoff (20.42%) and reducing base flow and lateral flow 4.50% and 1.28%, respectively. The increase of the total runoff is attributable to the lowering the watershed capability to preserve water retention capacity, hence, the rainy season (November – June) flow increased and the dry season (July – October) flow decreased. The simulation process conducted using several land use scenarios. The first scenario is land use design based on the suitability classes. The second scenario, upland which have slope 30 – 45% change into mixed garden and slope >45% change into forest. For bushes which have slope 0 – 30% change into mixed garden and slope >30% change into forest. The third scenario all bushes change into forest. Simulation results showed that land use base on land suitability improve better hydrological condition in Cijalupang Watershed. This indicated by the reduction total runoff and increase total base flow and total lateral flow at annual period. To optimize land use Cijalupang watershed should be considered land quality and hydrological aspect, as well as the people dependence to the agriculture. Based on the analysis, scenario 3 is the optimum land use in Cijalupang Watershed. Hydrologically scenario 3 is able to reduce annual runoff up to 2.12%. This research proved that land use influence water yield and proportion of flow components. The increase runoff indicated increase flooding hazard in wet season and drought in dry season. This condition will threat the sustainability of agriculture and surrounding environments. Thus, the future land use planning should employ the water yield as a basis, as well as its land suitability. SWAT 2000 is useful tools to predict the optimizing of land use

Keywords: Land use changes, SWAT, land suitability, hydrological characteristics, watershed

Diterbitkan pada Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pertanian Ramah Lingkungan. Hal. 691-706. Penyunting: Sulaeman et al. Bogor, 29 Mei 2013. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian. 2013

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