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Isolasi dan Penapisan Mikroba Pupuk Hayati Asal Kalimantan Tengah serta Keefektifannya
dalam Mengurangi Pupuk Anorganik pada Pembibitan Kelapa Sawit

1Etty Pratiwi, Husnain, Edi Santosa, Selly Salma dan 2M. Yusron
1Peneliti Badan Litbang Pertanian pada Balai Penelitian Tanah, Jl. Tentara Pelajar 12, Cimanggu Bogor
2Peneliti Badan Litbang Pertanian pada Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan,
Jl. Tentara Pelajar 1, Cimanggu Bogor

Abstract. Palm oil is one of the leading commodities in Indonesia. One limiting factor in the productivity of oil palm plantations is a nutrient that is not optimal. The low production is related to levels of manure management and nutrient availability for plants that are not optimal. Fertilization using inorganic fertilizers may increase the production of oil palm plantations, but excessive use of inorganic fertilizers are being offset by the application of organic fertilizer to make the soil than is physically damaged, chemistry, biology, and increase the cost of production. It is therefore necessary efforts to increase fertilizer efficiency and environmentally effective. The use of organic fertilizer can reduce the negative impact of inorganic fertilizers, but the unfortunately it has a low nutrient content. One effort to overcome it is to use biofertilizer in order to increase nutrient uptake, growth and yield of plant. Biofertilizer contain microbes, either single or multiple microbes, in a carrier material with the function to provide nutrients to increase crop production. These microbes are beneficial and not pathogenic to plants. Various soil bacteria known as plant growth promoting bacteria consists of bacteria that live in the rhizosphere, free live around the roots, and producing phytohormones. Research of biofertilizer application on some food crops or horticultural commodity proven to reduce the dose of inorganic fertilizers by 50%. We have isolated and screened rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria from soil around the roots and plant of oil palm in Lamandau district, Central Kalimantan province. We have collected 27 bacterial isolates of P-dissolving bacteria, 15 isolates of endophytic bacteria, and 29 isolates of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.  Nine of them that have high capability in N2 fixation, dissolving P, and phytohormones production were selected as the components of three liquid biofertilizer, each of of which contains: (i) nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ii) P-dissolving bacteria, (iii) endophytic bacteria, and (iv) bacteria producing antimicrobial compounds. The biofertilizer liquid formulations were then tested its effectiveness in reducing of inorganic fertilizers in oil palm seedlings. Application of biofertilizer formula II combined with 50% of inorganic fertilizer have the same effectiveness with the application 100% inorganic fertilizer, and significantly increased plant height, leaf number and the diameter of the oil palm seedlings.

Keywords: Isolation, screening, biofertlizer, formulation of biofertilizer, palm oil, effectiveness

Diterbitkan pada Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pertanian Ramah Lingkungan. Hal. 183-194. Penyunting: Sulaeman et al. Bogor, 29 Mei 2013. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian. 2013

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