Sri Rochayati, Irawan and Husnain
Food security has been considered as the most important in agricultural policy in Indonesia. The Green revolution technology contributed to greatly increasing national rice productivity by using chemical inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides as its main component. However, improper management of the use of chemical inputs resulted in the negative impact on human health and the environment. Entering the 21st century, healthy lifestyle with the slogan “back to nature” has become a new trend where the people become more aware of the negative impact of chemical inputs in agriculture. Thus, organic farming system is the best option to the new lifestyle.
Organic farming is a system of agricultural practice that utilizes natural materials, such as compost, bio-fertilizers and natural pesticides as well as in situ suitable plant varieties. Organic farming systems including its product are known safe for human being and environment. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) defines organic agriculture as “a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity, and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationship and a good quality of life for all involved“(IFOAM, 2008). The concept of organic agriculture by USDA is “an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, and enhance ecological harmony”.