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PERANAN KONSERVASI LAHAN DALAM PENGELOLAAN PERKEBUNAN

The Role of Land Conservation in Plantation Management

A. Abas Idjudin

Balai Penelitian Tanah, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 98 Bogor 16123

ABSTRAK

Masalah utama dalam usahatani pada lahan kering berlereng bila tanpa disertai tindakan konservasi tanah akan menimbulkan erosi tanah. Erosi tanah menyebabkan terjadinya kerusakan lahan pertanian berupa kemunduran sifat-sifat (fisik, kimia, dan biologi) tanah serta menurunkan produktivitas lahannya. Erosi tanah sangat merugikan, produktivitas tanahnya semakin rendah. Peranan teknik konservasi tanah sangat penting dalam menanggulangi erosi dan memperbaiki tanah yang telah rusak. Teknik konservasi tanah adalah cara-cara pengawetan tanah, yang merangkum tiga macam pengertian yaitu : a) melindungi tanah terhadap kerusakan-kerusakan, b) memperbaiki tanah yang telah rusak, dan c) membuat tanah sedapat mungkin menjadi subur. Dalam praktek penerapan teknik konservasi tanah di lapangan, digunakan dua metode konservasi tanah yaitu metode konservasi mekanik dan metode konservasi vegetatif. Metode konservasi mekanik adalah berupa pembuatan bangunan-bangunan pencegahan erosi dan manipulasi mekanik tanah dan permukaan tanah (pengolahan tanah menurut kontur, pembuatan teras, guludan, saluran pembuangan air (SPA), bangunan terjunan air (BTA), rorak, chekdam sumbat gully, dan sebagainya. Sedangkan metode vegetatif ditujukan untuk mengurangi energi pukulan butir-butir hujan di permukaan tanah, mengurangi kecepatan aliran permukaan (run off), memperbesar kapasitas infiltrasi dan mengurangi kandungan air tanah. Kemempanan teknik konservasi tanah di lahan kering terhadap erosi tanah dan produktivitasnya berbeda untuk tiap lokasi. Hal ini karena daya dukung lahan (spesifik tapak, sifat dan watak tanah serta iklim) yang berlainan. Kesungguhan pengguna teknologi dalam menjalankan teknik konservasi tanah ikut menentukan keberhasilan peningkatan lahan kering yang terdegradasi.

Kata kunci : Lahan berlereng, degradasi sifat tanah, teknik konservasi, daya dukung lahan, motivasi petani pengguna lahan

ABSTRACT

The main problem of agricultural activities in the steep slope upland area if without adequate soil conservation practices is that it will results in soil erosion. Soil erosion causes agricultural land degradation which reduces the physical, chemical, and biological soil roperties and decreases land productivities. Soil erosion is very harmful to agricultural land productivities, because loss of the fertile topsoil in a relatively short time causes decrease of fertility and productivity of the soils. The role of conservation techniques are the way of soil conservation, which have three principles of definitions, i.e. a) to protect the soil against soil degradation, b) to improve the degraded soil, and c) to make the soil more fertile. Soil conservation practice in the field have used two methods i.e. mechanical conservation methods and vegetative conservation methods. Mechanical conservation method is the earth embankments constructed across the slope to intercept surface run off and to protect soil erosion (soil cultivation along the contour, terraces constructed, contour bank, waterways ditch, drop structure, silt pit, checkdam, gully plug, etc). While the vegetative methode are reducing the kinetic energy of the raindrops on the soil surface, reducing the run off velocity, increasing infiltration rate and reducing soil water contents. The effectiveness of soil conservation techniques in uplands area on the the soil erosion and the land productivity is different in each location. This is because of the difference of the land capability (site specific, soil behavior and properties, and the climate). Farmers’ motivation as the user of the soil conservation technologies is included as one on the determinant factors of the successfulness in improving degraded upland and in increasing land productivity.

Keywords : Slope upland, soil properties degradation, conservation techniques, land capability, improving degradated upland,  farmers’ motivation

Makalah diterbitkan dalam Jurnal Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan (Indonesian  Journal of Land Resources) Vol 5 No. 2, Desember 2011. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Departemen Pertanian

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