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Pengelolaan Hara dan Teknologi Pemupukan Mendukung Swasembada Pangan di Indonesia
Role of Inorganic Fertilizer in Supporting Indonesian Food Self Sufficiency

Husnain, A. Kasno, S. Rochayati

Abstrak: Peranan pupuk menjadi vital bagi perkembangan pertanian menuju swasembada pangan. Namun demikian aplikasi pupuk belum dilakukan secara efektif dan efisien dimana jenis pupuk, dosis yang diberikan, cara aplikasi dan  timing saat pemupukan belum banyak diperhatikan. Rekomendasi pupuk juga seringkali berlaku secara umum tanpa mengindahkan status hara dalam tanah. Permasalahan di atas terlihat dari trend produktivitas tanaman pangan dibandingkan dengan trend konsumsi pupuk, dimana peningkatan konsumsi pupuk belum diikuti oleh peningkatan produktivitas tanaman pangan terutama padi dan kedelai. Pengelolaan hara makro N, P, dan K saja tanpa dibarengi dengan pengelolaan hara mikro dan benefisial seperti Silika menyebabkan stagnansi produktivitas tanaman pangan. Dalam artikel ini dibahas secara komprehensif informasi terkait unsur hara, klasifikasi pupuk, perkembangan produktivitas pangan dan konsumsi pupuk, penetapan kebutuhan pupuk hingga rekomendasi teknik aplikasi pupuk agar pemberian pupuk lebih efektif dan efisien.

Kata kunci: Pupuk / Pemupukan Berimbang / Swasembada Pangan

Abstract: Fertilizer is a major important factor for agricultural development towards food self-sufficiency. However, application of fertilizer has not been carried out effectively and efficiently. Factors affected efficiency use of fertilizer such as type of fertilizer, rate of fertilizer, application method and the timing has not received much attention. Fertilizer recommendations are also often applies in general regardless of the status of nutrients in the soil. Trend of food productivity and fertilizer consumption might explain the problem related to the fertilizer effectivity. An increase in fertilizer consumption has not been followed by an increase in productivity of food crops, especially for rice and soybeans. Application of N, P and K without consider micro nutrients and beneficial elements such as Silica cause stagnation of crop productivity at certain level and period. In this article, the information related to nutrients, classification of fertilizer, general condition of food productivity and fertilizer consumption, fertilizer recommendation and application technique are discussed.

Keywords:  Fertilizer / Balance Fertilization / Food Self Sufficiency

(Diterbitkan pada Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan (Indonesian Journal of Land Resources)) Volume 10 Nomor 1, Juli 2016. Hal. 25-36. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian).

 

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