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Peranan Pupuk Organik dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas Tanah dan Tanaman
Role of Organic Fertilizer to Improving Soil and Crop Productivity

Wiwik Hartatik, Husnain, dan Ladiyani R. Widowati

Abstrak: Pupuk organik berperan dalam meningkatkan kesuburan fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah serta mengefisienkan penggunaan pupuk anorganik. Kualitas dan komposisi pupuk organik bervariasi tergantung dari bahan dasar kompos dan proses pembuatannya. Penggunaan tanaman legum baik berupa tanaman lorong (alley cropping) maupun tanaman penutup tanah (cover crop) serta bahan organik insitu, perlu diintensifkan untuk mendukung pemanfaatan pupuk organik non komersial dan pemulihan kesuburan tanah.Pemberdayaan masyarakat dan kelompok tani dalam pengadaan pupuk organik dapat dilakukan melalui: a) melatih petani membuat pupuk organik insitu yang berasal dari kotoran ternak dan sisa tanaman yang dikomposkan;b) mendorong petani melakukan diversifikasi usaha pertanian berbasis ternak; dan c) mendorong petani melakukan pengelolaan bahan organik insitu terutama pada lahan kering. Pemanfaatan pupuk organik telah diterapkan dalam sistem budidaya pertanian organik (organic farming) dan System rice of intensification (SRI). Pemberian pupuk organik yang dikombinasikan dengan pupuk anorganik, telah diterapkan dalam sistem pengelolaan tanaman terpadu (PTT), sistem integrasi padi/palawija dan ternak (SIPT), sistem pertanian mandiri yang mengintegrasikan ternak dan tanaman crop livestock system (CLS).

Kata kunci: Pupuk Organik / Produktivitas Tanah / Tanaman

Abstract: It is inevitable that organic fertilizer plays a major role in increasing the fertility of the physical, chemical and biological as well as the efficient use of inorganic fertilizers. The main composition of organic fertilizer when it decomposes will consist of mostly water and cellulose, hemiselulose, lignin, and a small portion main macro nutrients, secondary macro nutrients, micro elements and silica. There is also a growth regulating enzymes and vitamins as a byproduct of microbial decomposition. The main component or specific parameters have a major role and the speed of the process of transformation of organic fertilizer into the form of mineral nutrients and the end product is humus. The significance of organic fertilizer is widely recognized by agricultural researchers and practitioners. In addition the use of organic fertilizers in paddy fields and dry land cultivation system of agriculture that combines inorganic fertilizer and organic, has strived implemented by the government in this case the Ministry of Agriculture that the system of integrated crop management (ICM), system integration paddy/crops and livestock (SIPT), an independent agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop plants livestock system (CLS). If the awareness of farmers on the use of organic fertilizers increases, the availability of both in situ and have to come from outside should be available in sufficient quantity and good quality. Technological innovation of Agricultural Research and Development Agency to support the use of organic fertilizers continue to research and develop. Currently available guidebooks and technological innovation, such as land management guidelines, management guidelines of organic materials and organic fertilizer, granular organic fertilizer product (Tithoganik, POG, POCr), and decomposers products to accelerate the process of decomposition (such as M-dec). Opportunities and challenges in increasing stakeholder awareness is not a barrier in optimizing organic fertilizer. The key is the synergistic integration between institutions regulatory, technical institutions, Research Agency, producers and users in the implementation of socialization, production, guidance and supervision.

Keywords: Organic Fertilizer / Soil / Crop Productivity

(Diterbitkan pada Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan (Indonesian Journal of Land Resources)) Volume 9 Nomor 2, Desember 2015. Hal. 107-120. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian).

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