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Aplikasi Biochar dan Tithoganic dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas Kedelai (Glycine max L.)
pada Typic Kanhapludults di Lampung Timur

Biochar and Tithoganic Application for Improving Soybean (Glycine max L.) Productivity
on Typic Kanhapludults in Lampung Timur

Wiwik Hartatik, Heri Wibowo, Jati Purwani

 Abstrak

Ameliorasi dan pemupukan diperlukan untuk mendukung produksi kedelai yang optimal pada Ultisol. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh Biochar, Tithoganic, dan Bionutrient terhadap sifat kimia, fisika dan biologi Typic Kanhapludults dan produktivitas kedelai. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni- September (musim kemarau) 2013, di Desa Taman Bogo, Kabupaten Lampung Timur. Tanaman indikator yang digunakan kedelai, dengan jarak tanam 15 x 40 cm. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terpis ah (splitplot), empat ulangan. Petak utama: A1 = Kontrol, A2 = Dolomit (515 kg ha-1) dan A3 = Biochar (2,5 t ha-1). Anak petak: B1 = Tithoganic 2 t ha-1, B2 = Tithoganic 2 t ha-1 + Bionutrient dan B3 = mulsa jerami 2 t ha-1. Dosis pupuk dasar Urea, SP-36, dan KCl berturut-turut 50, 100 dan 150 kg ha-1. Pada saat kedelai berumur 50 hari setelah tanam diamati sifat kimia, fisika dan biologi tanah. Pengamatan agronomis termasuk pertumbuhan tanaman, jumlah dan berat bintil akar, hasil tanaman dan serapan N, P dan K. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Biochar nyata meningkatkan K potensial, tetapi tidak nyata berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisika tanah. Dolomit berpengaruh nyata meningkatkan pH dan aktivitas mikroba serta menurunkan Al-dd tanah. Tithoganic nyata meningkatkan kadar C-organik, Ca-dd, Mg-dd, dan aktivitas mikroba. Perlakuan Tithoganic + Bionutrient nyata meningkatkan Ca-dd dan kejenuhan basa dibandingkan aplikasi mulsa jerami. Ameliorasi Biochar 2,5 t ha-1 memberikan pengaruh yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan Dolomit 515 kg ha-1 terhadap bobot biji kering kedelai. Biochar yang dikombinasikan dengan pemberian Tithoganic atau Tithoganic + Bionutrient memberikan bobot biji kering kedelai lebih tinggi berturut-turut sebesar 2,28 dan 2,42 t ha-1, terjadi peningkatan bobot biji kering kedelai berturut-turut sekitar 19 dan 26% dibandingkan aplikasi mulsa jerami 2 t ha-1. Biochar nyata meningkatkan serapan P dan K dan Tithoganic nyata meningkatkan serapan N, P dan K tanaman kedelai dibandingkan dengan aplikasi mulsa jerami. Peningkatan produktivitas tanah dan tanaman kedelai pada Typic Kanhapludults, Lampung Timur memerlukan amelioran Dolomit atau Biochar yang dikombinasikan dengan Tithoganic dengan dosis seperti diuji pada penelitian ini.

 Abstract

 Amelioration and fertilization are needed to support optimum soybean production on Ultisols. This study aims to determine the effects of Biochar, Tithoganic and Bionutrient on the chemical, physical and biological properties of Typic Kanhapludults and productivity of soybean in Lampung Timur. The experiment was conducted in Juni – September in the 2013 dry season in Taman Bogo Village, Lampung Timur. Indicator plant was soybean of Anjasmoro variety, with plant spacing of 15 cm x 40 cm. The experimental design was Split Plot, with four replication. As the main plots were A1 = Control, A2 = 515 kg ha-1 Dolomite, and A3 = 2.5 t ha-1 Biochar. The subplots were B1 = 2 t ha-1 Tithoganic, B2 = 2 t ha-1 Tithoganic + Bionutrient, B3 = 2 t ha-1 straw mulch. The rates of fertilizers Urea was 50 kg ha-1, SP-36 was 100 kg ha-1 and 150 was kg KCl ha-1. At 50 days after planting, we observed soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Agronomic observations included soybean growth, number and dry weight of nodule, yield and nutrient uptake of N, P and K. The results showed that Biochar significantly increased potential K concentration, but did not improve soil physical properties. Dolomite significantly increased soil pH, microbial activity and decreased exchangeable Al. Tithoganic treatment significantly increased organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg and microbial activity. Tithoganic + Bionutrient treatment significantly increased the exchangable Ca and base saturation compared to straw mulch application. Biochar 2.5 t ha-1 did not have significantly different grain dry weight of soybean compared to 515 kg ha-1 Dolomite. Combination of Biochar and Tithoganic or Tithoganic + Bionutrient gave the highest grain dry weight of soybean of 2.28 and 2.42 t ha-1, respectively. Increase of grain dry weight of soybean was about 19 and 26%, respectively compared to 2 t ha-1 from straw mulch application. The Biochar significantly increased P and K uptakes and Tithoganic significantly increased the uptakes of N, P and K by soybean compared to straw mulch application. Dolomite or Biochar in combination with Tithoganic at the tested rate of this experiment improved soybean productivity of Typic Kanhapludults in Lampung Timur.

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